The purpose: to analyze some assumptions regarding the likely impact of the microbiome on the psychological state of a person on the basis of the latest foreign and domestic studies of the microbial composition of the macroorganism and the normorbiota as a whole.
Results. The state of human health depends on nutrition, as the most important factor regulating human microbiota. Depressive symptoms are triggered by increased consumption of foods high in fat and sugar and are the long-term consequences of these unhealthy eating habits. Microbial changes caused by poor nutrition can provoke and exacerbate depressive symptoms. At the same time, adjusting nutrition, on the contrary, can prevent the development of depression. Gut microbiota produces a wide range of compounds that are important for the body: all major neurotransmitters, including serotonin, cytokines, tryptophan, and short-chain fatty acids. Serotonin deficiency is considered a significant causal factor in the development of anxiety, affective disorders and stress. Inflammation, oxidative stress, intestinal microbiome, epigenetic modifications and neuroplasticity are considered among the main neurobiological pathways of the formation of mental disorders. In the context of nutraceutical intervention, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetylcysteine, and probiotics are considered promising for future research.
Conclusion. A two-way relationship between the gut microbiome and the central nervous system has been established through direct and indirect pathways: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, the immune system, and the autonomic nervous system.