The modern approach to the diagnosis of renal cysts

April 4, 2017

Renal cysts are one of the most common kidney pathology encountered in urologists practice: it is diagnosed in ~50% of people aged >50 years. In detecting and verifying renal cysts, the main diagnostic search is aimed at differentiating cysts from malignant neoplasms, since the cystic form of renal cell carcinoma accounts for 5–10% of all renal tumors. Imaging methods based on the visualization of pathological focus, such as ultrasound, computer and magnetic resonance imaging play the leading role in the detection of kidneys tumors. These methods have high specificity, accuracy and sensitivity. However, in 5–7% (according to some data — in 8–10%) patients such methods of visual diagnostics do not provide sufficient information for a clear differentiation of the pathological process. In these cases, it is advisable to use additional methods. The main current trends are the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and biopsy. Researches of the detection of specific renal cancer markers in various environments of the body are vety promising However, these areas require further study and improvement and are used in combination with classical beam methods for differential diagnosis in difficult cases.